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progress in trompe-l'oeil. It is thus that, in a recent study on the energy transition, the financial group Edmond de Rothschild notes the efforts of countries

The energy transition global advance-does it really ?

progress in trompe-l'oeil. It is thus that, in a recent study on the energy transition, the financial group Edmond de Rothschild notes the efforts of countries

The energy transition global advance-does it really ?

progress in trompe-l'oeil. It is thus that, in a recent study on the energy transition, the financial group Edmond de Rothschild notes the efforts of countries to decrease their ecological footprint. The bank has developed an indicator taking into account the emissions of carbon dioxide, the per capita energy consumption, the share of fossil fuels in the energy mix and energy efficiency, that is to say, the ability to generate GDP with a given amount of energy*. A work that sheds light on several facts capital on the reality of the fight for the environment on a global scale.

the countries of The Persian gulf, pointed the finger

First finding: in all areas, saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and the united arab Emirates is located in the depths of the rankings. The four countries have a primary energy consumption per capita is extremely high, an amount of CO2 of the same order and, despite their high GDP, a energy efficiency ridiculous. A poor ranking is due in large part to their economic model based on fossil fuels (oil and gas). And yet, the classification does not take into account the embodied energy (necessary for the extraction of raw materials, etc). Their lack of efficiency and their CO2 emissions are also due to the climate, as well as to practices that are polluting as the use of massive sea water desalination (Qatar uses 400 litres of water per capita per day), or the free electricity and the use of constant air conditioning, even for very large surfaces.

carbon dioxide Emissions per capita. Persian gulf countries are very much more polluting than the average. Edmond de Rothchild Economic Research in France is virtuous but can be more productive with its energy

In Europe, if the overall consumption remains elevated, as in all developed countries, it has decreased substantially between 2010 and 2017 (7.3 per cent). France is the seventh country the most virtuous, depending on the indicator Edmond de Rothschild, thanks mainly to its energy mix containing 52% of fossil energy only. Its per capita CO2 emissions are medium-sized (but already weaker than China). Its weak point lies more in its efficiency, where it is only 25th. Given its temperate climate (no heating or air-conditioning in addition to measurement) and reasonable distances, the country has a good margin of progress in the field. The study cites the importance of the energy efficiency of buildings, or the consumption of the vehicle, a subject, however, explosive in France since the crisis of the "yellow vests". More broadly, a good efficiency goes through programs of investment in research, in order to obtain a better performance of systems and equipment, whether they are industrial or retail.

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The growth without "efficiency" is dangerous

On the efficiency of pure, study was crowned elsewhere in Ireland, the Philippines and Switzerland, these three countries arriving at generating around 20 dollars of GDP per oil equivalent. Of course, this indicator alone is not representative as it is largely determined by the vagaries of the geographical range of the countries studied. Thus, Switzerland is helped by its moderate climate and its short distances between the major cities and sites of production. Conversely, Canada and Russia are badly placed, in part, because of their extreme climate, and of their area, involving of pollutants, routes of the goods. Similarly, while being very "efficient", Switzerland, to enable its wealth, has a primary energy consumption which remains high. Behind it, Bangladesh is also considered to be very efficient, with economy, to say the least different... efficiency, therefore, is not a guarantee of respect for nature, but a strong efficiency indicates a certain sobriety, compared to the level of life of the country.

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On the other hand, the study, referring to the energy efficiency, tackles a relatively little-discussed, that of the compatibility of growth with the objectives for the environment. To maintain global growth to its pace of long-term (3.4% per year) while adhering to the commitments of the COP21, a "strong acceleration of energy efficiency" is necessary, according to the Edmond de Rothschild group. The global growth will not be so "green" that if the efficiency increases of 2.4% per year, compared to an average of 1.5% in the last twenty years. Without this concentration of productivity gains on the energy, the overall growth will destroy the environment.

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so The challenge is to size. Is it only achievable? The recovery of global growth since 2014 has been enough to accelerate CO2 emissions, while according to the IPCC, it must, on the contrary, a decrease of 45% by 2030. The question is part of a controversy revived in recent years. It is between those that anticipate technical progress sufficient (and sufficiently shared) to decouple growth and environmental damage, and the skeptics who felt the need to return to the mode of development of the world economy. In other words, between those who believe that growth as we see it now is the solution, and those who see it as the central problem.

*L'"oil equivalent": one tonne is the equivalent of 42 gigajoules, or the calorific value of a tonne of oil.

" READ ALSO - Why is the energy transition involves a change of mode of life

Publish Date : 03 Mayıs 2019 Cuma 00:00

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