When a vaccine against the Covid-19 will it be finally available ? Should we consider their efficacy and the possible side effects ? The point.Summary: Medicine for coronavirus Dexamethasone Anakinra Chloroquine Azithromycin SIA-2801 SNG001 Remdesivir Ivermectin Avigan Tocilizumab and Interferon alpha-2b Vaccine against the coronavirus the trail of The BCG Processing of the coronavirus
[updated July 29, 2020 at 15h28] Marie-Paul Kieny, virologist and vaccinologiste, estimated at the end of July on RTL that the vaccine candidate AstraZeneca-University of Oxford "is almost a month early, a month and a half compared to its competitors". However, "there is a whole package of vaccines that are already well advanced and following the challenger very closely. It is expected during the summer or at the beginning of the fall of the first results, AstraZeneca of Moderna and a vaccine chinese", stressed the specialist. According to the vaccinologiste, "there will be several vaccines, but questions remain "about the performance" of these sera and, in particular, on their effectiveness in the elderly.
in addition to, in addition to questions about the effectiveness of the vaccine, the scientific Council is concerned about a few possible side effects from some of the public". According to an article published in the scientific journal, Stat, "all vaccines [against the Covid-19] are going to be reactogenic vaccine." The ministry of Health of the us, has carried out an experiment vaccine Covid-19. At the end of the clinical trial, half of the participants reported fatigue, headache, chills, or pain at place of injection". Be careful however not to surinterpréter this informatoin : Vaccination info-service has informed BFMTV that "these are reactions very common and normal, which do not last more than two days after the vaccination". A vaccine is a cure scientifically demanding, which guarantees a collective protection undeniable against a virus. It is still the case that these questions concern... 32% of the French say they will not vaccinate against the novel coronavirus (YouGov poll for the Huffington Post).What are the potential drug against the coronavirus ?
Dexamethasone. The Dexamethasone is a medication in the family of steroids. It has been built to study in the uk Recovery. The final conclusions were published on 17 July in the NEJM. In this randomized study, 2104 patients were treated with dexamethasone and 4321 to standard of care. 28 days after randomization, 482 patients (22,9%) in the group of dexamethasone and 1110 patients (25.7%) in the control group died. After analyses, the research team concluded that "the Dexamethasone resulted in a decrease of mortality at 28 days among [the patients] who were receiving mechanical ventilation, invasive or oxygen, but not among those who had no respiratory support."
anakinra. According to a French study, anakinra, usually for rheumatic diseases, demonstrates the results "encouraging" patients with severe forms of Covid-19. Its application in the treatment of the new coronavirus can block interleukin-1, a cytokine involved in the " storms inflammatory ". A research team from the Groupe hospitalier Paris Saint-Joseph (GHPSJ), has administered this treatment to 52 patients Covid+ for 10 days. According to the authors of the study, published in the journal The Lancet, Rheumatology, anakinra resulted in " statistically significant reduction in the risk of death and passage in the icu for respiratory support via mechanical ventilation ". A quarter of patients treated with anakinra have been transferred to the resuscitation or died, compared with 73% in the "control group". Also, in the "group medicine," the oxygen needs have decreased in 7 days.
The chloroquine. Chloroquine (CQ) is an antimalarial drug widely used. The sketches of the epidemic, this treatment has been acclaimed by professor Didier Raoult, director of the IHU Marseille. The infectiologist has successively carried out four studies that showed effectiveness to some of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). However, after the publication of a study in The Lancet, the decree authorising the prescription of CQ and HCQ in France, had been repealed on 27 may, before a volte-face in view of the criticisms based on the article from The Lancet. In addition, a French study, performed on about 55 000 people, has admitted that chloroquine or its derivative, used as a treatment, "long", do not protect against the coronavirus and its consequences. This experiment does not suggest a preventive role of the use of antimalarials, synthesis (APS) - long course on the risk of occurrence of a hospitalization, intubation, or death related to the Covid-19," concluded the authors. Another French study, published in the journal Nature on July 22, 2020, confirmed that the HCQ does not protect "the animals when it is used in the prevention of hiv infection". Also, "the study thus shows that the HCQ, which has antiviral properties in some in vitro assays (using cells in culture), has no antiviral effect in vivo in the macaque in the specific conditions of this work, and in spite of exposure to significant pulmonary."
azithromycin. Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is widely used, particularly in the treatment of bacterial infections consequent to a viral infection. However, according to the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, "azithromycin is not effective in the treatment of viral infections. Furthermore, if it has shown activity on some viruses in vitro (in the laboratory), its activity on SARS-CoV-2 is not proven." It is stated that "there is today very little scientific arguments in favour of a benefit specific to azithromycin in the management of patients with Covid-19."
The SIA-2801. The SIA-2801 — an antiviral drug tested on cultures of cells of the human airway — has inhibited the viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1 without causing toxicity. This treatment has not yet been tested on mice for the Covid-19, but its efficacy in animals has been demonstrated for the MERS and SARS. In the journal Science Translational Medicine, the research team has estimated that "if another virus of the type SARS or MERS to spread to the future, the [SIA-2801] would probably be sensitive to the antiviral activity of this treatment". In a press release, Timothy Sheahan, first author of the study, explained : "This antiviral could be evaluated in the context of compassionate use and clinical trials in humans. The goal is to directly attack the virus, to alleviate the symptoms, decrease the pathogenesis and save lives."
The SNG001. The SNG001 is a treatment for inhalation-based beta-interferons, a natural protein that mediates the response of the body against the virus. According to a study conducted by the laboratory in the uk that the product, Synairgen — patients Covid+ treated with SNG001 were 79 % less likely than others to develop severe forms of the disease, that is to say, requiring a respirator, or that may result in death.
The Remdesivir. The Remdesivir, an antiviral drug developed by the us laboratory Gilead, showed "modest efficacy" against the Covid-19. According to a study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, a daily dose of the intravenous treatment for 10 days has accelerated the recovery of the hospitalized patients, compared to placebo : 11 days, up from 15 in median. The treatment appeared to reduce mortality : 7.1% of patients in the group Remdesivir are dead in 14 days, compared to 11.9 % in the placebo group. The authors stated that "it is clear that antiviral treatment may not be sufficient alone."
The Ivermectin. Ivermectin, an anti-parasitic, has shown promising effects on the Covid-19. According to a study by the american prépubliée, taking the drug in patients Covid+ allows for a significant decrease in mortality and a shorter hospital stay. The research teams of the american universities of Utah and Harvard university have conducted a study and analyzed and compared the evolution of the disease in 1 in 400 patients. The first half was treated with ivermectin, the other half with a treatment-as-usual. It appeared that among patients in respirators 7% died in the group of ivermectin, against 21% in the "control group". The overall mortality rate is 1% in the first group compared to 8% in the second. However, "despite a large number of patients included and the presence of a control group allows for a comparison, the study does not meet the criteria of the clinical trial was a randomized, double-blind," said, in Le Figaro, the Pr François Chast, a pharmacist. Etienne Decroly, a researcher at the CNRS, has confirmed : "It is still unclear the molecular mechanism by which the drug inhibits the replication of the coronavirus. However, it is not enough to observe an effect, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms at work."
L Avigan. L Avigan — trade name of favipiravir — is a hope in the search for a treatment against the Covid-19. This antiviral, which was approved in 2017 in Japan, is usually used to fight Ebola and flu outbreaks. The favipiravir inhibits viral replication, that is to say that it blocks the duplication of the virus inside a cell. Experiments on animals have shown that this drug affects the development of the fetus. Accordingly, it is not administered to pregnant women. In addition, it is not recommended for children and adolescents. In spite of these supposed side effects, some doctors have started to use l Avigan against the coronavirus. The first returns indicate that this treatment could help to shorten the healing time of patients. The AFP reported that in China, the ministry of Science and Technology spoke of the "very good clinical results". Another experiment, conducted by the University Fujita Health in Japan, gave "inconclusive results." 25 trials are underway, including in the United States, Italy and Japan.
tocilizumab. Tocilizumab is a serious track against the Covid-19. A randomized study, carried out by the Hospitals of Paris - Assistance publique, it was demonstrated that this drug significantly improves the prognosis of patients with pneumonia covid average " or "severe". This immunosuppressant drug could prevent the formation of thunderstorms cytokiniques" (of affection serious of the lungs related to an immune response disproportionate). The study was conducted on 129 patients : 65 were treated with tocilizumab, the other a treatment-as-usual. These promising results must however be confirmed by additional testing."
interferon-alpha-2b. Interferon alpha-2b (IFN-a2b) could be a new avenue of treatment against the Covid-19. This antiviral drug, usually prescribed to treat hepatitis C, has shown promising effects against the new coronavirus. A research team from china has experimented with this drug on 77 adults Covid+ hospitalized. The patients were divided in three distinct groups : a first receiving IFN-a2b ; a second one of the arbidol (an antiviral drug against influenza) ; and the third the combination of IFN-a2b and arbidol. In an experience report, published in the scientific journal Frontiers in Immunology, scientists have pointed out that the IFN-a2b "significantly reduced" the presence of the virus in the upper respiratory tract" of the subject. At the same time, the researchers found a decrease of "inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP" in charge of "storms cytokiniques". It is clarified that neither patient developed respiratory distress requiring oxygen supplementation." According to the authors, "these results suggest that IFN-a2b should be further studied" as a form of therapy in the case of COVID-19.is there a vaccine against the coronavirus ?
According to a study published on Monday 20 July 2020 in the Lancet — on the 200 vaccine projects in progress, only two have demonstrated a "strong immune response" against the Covid-19. The first is the serum developed by the university of Oxford in partnership with the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. It has been tested on 1 077 volunteers, aged 18 to 55 years of age. The second is the one conducted in Wuhan (China), by scientists from several organizations, the clinical trials have focused on 508 volunteers ranging from 18 to 83 years. These two vaccines have generated the production of antibodies and T-lymphocytes, two types of immune responses. 28 days after injection of the vaccine candidate, more than 90 % of the trial participants british had neutralizing antibodies in the blood of about 85 % in the trial chinese — antibody levels were lower in subjects over 55 years of age —. No serious adverse effects were recorded. Headaches, fever, fatigue, and pain at the vaccine injection site were the side effects observed. These two clinical trials are in the preliminary phase (phase 1/2 and phase 2). With a view to marketing, their effectiveness will need to be determined in a test phase 3 on a large scale.
On FranceInfo, Eric Caumes, head of the department of infectious and tropical diseases at the paris hospital Pitié-Salpêtrière, has tempered these results. "It is not yet known if the vaccine is effective, and how long it will remain so", he explained. Because "this is not because there are antibodies that the body is protected against the virus." Infectious diseases physician stated that it will "have to check [if the serum] works for everyone : the elderly can sometimes respond less well to vaccines."
In the meantime, AstraZeneca has entered into agreements to produce 2 billion of vaccines. Bruno Holthof, boss of the university hospital of Oxford, acted in de TIJD (belgian newspaper) that "if everything continues to proceed as planned, we expect to deliver the first billion doses of vaccine by the winter." This serum will be sold at "cost price", or 2.5 euros the unit said on RTL Pascal Soriot, the boss of the pharmaceutical company in the british AstraZeneca.
in addition, the vaccine RNA of the american society Moderna will enter the last phase of his clinical trial on 27 July. The serum will be inoculated with 30 000 people in the United States, half will receive a dose of 100 micrograms, the other a placebo. The research teams will then follow the subjects for two years to determine if they are protected against infection by Sars-CoV-2. The vaccine will also be considered as a success if it prevents serious cases of Covid-19. In the test phases of the previous, the vaccine has demonstrated a lack of toxicity and the production of antibodies.The track of BCG is she serious ?
BCG is a tb vaccine, is a track's potential in the fight against the Covid-19. In a press release, the Inserm has explained that " epidemiological studies have shown an interesting correlation between immunization rates for BCG and the rate of morbidity and mortality in the face of the Covid-19." While remaining cautious, the institute has to be mentioned, that the serum "could allow to diminish the importance of the infection to the virus SARS-CoV-2 in stimulating the memory of the innate immunity."How did one deal with the coronavirus today ? Date Of Update: 29 July 2020, 09:57